An analysis of U.P. politics: Report

As The Elections Arriving In Uttar Pradesh, just few months are left for the preparation. No big Political party is in the mood to chuck the chance to grab the chair. Samajwadi Party had declared its first list of candidates, exactly a year ahead of polls. These two ruling parties (BJP in central and SP in UP)  usually compete for media exposure. the Bahujan Samaj Party started with the usual procedure under the media radar, covering the ground to mobilise its troops and amalgamate its core support base among the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to have a strong hold once again.The gestures made and issues they are linked with are the hints of their electoral strategies and can be seen as the cashing the vote banks of caste or community.But the questions for these three major troops of UP will remain the same –

Will The BSP Hold On To Its SC Support?   Will The BJP Be Able To Bring Together The Upper Caste Vote And Score Among The Lower Obcs?    Will The Muslims Stick On To SP?


U.P. and its caste Politics

Uttar Pradesh and Caste Politics are the two inseparable things, since 1990s, when regional parties and the BJP rose through caste-based and religious mobilizations. These parties built for themselves core support bases by mixing identity politics and caste-base favoritism and Caste preferences. These tactics often led them to antagonize entire segments of the electorate for the sake of accession of some supports.

The alignments were always clear: Dalits Or Lower Caste Is there With Behenji Mayawati, Upper Castes Of The UP Stands With The BJP,  Yadavs And Muslims are For The Mulayam Singh Yadav And Azam Khan, nothing particular for Congress party, as it was never in absolute power or successful in UP as compared to others and still struggling to find the right face for UP .This is the basic scenario or the narrow version of identity politics led to the fragmentation of the political space in Uttar Pradesh.

But in 2017, the situation will be quite complex. these simplistic caste-party alignments are either gone or are not enough to explain or understand parties’ performances. It is evidently traced that during or the months before an elections. The “caste  beckons” do make an impact on voters’ minds, choices.

Decoding castes and their voting math is hard nut

Most castes are too small or too geographically scattered  to compose a core support base to any party or candidate, Nearly 40% of Uttar Pradesh’s castes have never sent a single representative to the assembly. These are essentially non-Jatav SC castes or castes that belong to the extremely Backward Class category. They constitute a floating electorate that is generally insensitive to caste appeals.


A survey data signifies that only a few groups of voters cast their votes specifically – Jatavs and Yadavs because they have both numerical strength and a party of their own. Other groups, including the upper castes, have been splitting their votes between parties and local candidates, election after election.

The caste is really not the backbone now as the basis of caste may be required to win elections but surely not be enough.

According to the 1931 census, the largest single caste — Jatavs or SC —represents 13% of the population. The two other large groups — Brahmins and Yadavs — represent respectively 9.2 and 8.9℅ of the population in the state. Factor in the fact that not all of them vote and that not all of them vote for the same party, and it becomes clear that campaigning by wooing specific castes to the exclusion of others does not help in winning elections. In fact, in recent times, majorities have been built by the other factors and capabilities than just caste.

the four main broad social groups — upper castes, OBCs, SCs and Muslims — represent each nearly one-fourth of the SP’s MLAs. The Bahujan Samaj Party wins majority of votes by its ability to consolidate the Jatav vote and induct other castes within its ranks, including the OBCs, who have always had the largest share of representation within the party.

Will BJP able to make dent in other parties vote bank this time?

Recently a growing differentiation of caste voting along class lines, the richer segments of most castes, barring the Dalits, voting more for the BJP. CSDS survey data again reveals, for example, that among the Yadavs — who remain a core support base for the SP — the richer segments tend to vote more for the BJP.

General election indicates in more recent times that social and religious polarisation can still be used to fragment the political space, to help build majorities of seats out of minorities of votes.

This is not to say that caste arithmetic no longer matters or operates but that it is insufficient to win an election. Caste still determines the distribution of tickets, which in turn shapes the representation caste groups have in the assembly. Ticket distribution can not done following pan-state caste combinations strategies but according to local, constituency-level, circumstances.

The inclusive character that the main parties have acquired in UP derives largely from the localisation of caste politics, which leads them to distribute tickets across the caste spectrum and therefore offer representation to nearly all. The successful parties are those who can, in addition, attract floating voters, by other means than identity politics.

We have seen in recent elections, in Bihar, West Bengal or Tamil Nadu, that the parties in power who offer tangible benefits to voters across caste divisions — to women in particular — get rewarded. This trend supersedes an older trend of incumbency disadvantage. More and more state governments are returned to power precisely because of their ability to effectively distribute public goods while transcending caste divisions. So the question that will animate most voters in the next assembly elections in UP is likely to be: Which party is in a better position to do so?.

Upper caste, Congress votes key to Amit Shah’s UP poll math. Apponting Sheila Dikshit as CM  candidate congress is eying upper cast Brahmin vote, but Sheila Dikshit is not that big name who can fully achieve this goal

The BJP party president Amit Shah is of the view that Muslims, roughly 18% of voters, are solidly with SP, the ruling party now. He also feels the main fight is between SP and BJP, with Mawayati-led BSP “weakened” by “exits of several leaders.” But Congress can play a spoiler role for BJP. “If Congress revives a bit and gets some extra votes…it will divide the secular vote more and help for BJP.

Stay tuned for more updates!



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  • PanditPrabhakar

    See Delhi Bihar & UP 2014 LS election BJP won 98% seats. There after in Delhi and Bihar BJP routed to Nil. In all surveys predicted BJP a landslide victory. No survey predicted AAP victory in Delhi. So live it up false paid surveys. Come to the actual ground reality. If Grand Alliance comes true they will 2/3 majority as if like in Bihar. Or not happens it will be a hung assembly with SP 120 BJP 110 and BSP 100 and Congress 70. It shows that no alliance can form the government. I think when election nearby SP BJP BSP may loose their above strength and Congress may improves to 80-85. If happens so there is chances for a collision government .

  • Jack

    BJP have to do much more than just statements and rallies, to break into dalit vote bank.

  • Nationalist

    Not sure why each and every incident is being related to dalits by Mayawati and BSP, when someone is exploited or beaten or sexually exploited, is it necessary that it is because of cast, number of rapes , murder or crimes happen daily basis, so if they are not from a particular cast then these people will not raise voice for them. What kind of bulshit system is this. All casts and religions must be scrapped officially, there must be only religion and cast that is Indian. Individuals can follow their practices or rituals but their cast and religion must be Indian. In that way we can scrap reservation and shut shops of fake secularism and caste politics.

  • Parul Verma

    Communal and Caste based politics, that too openly…

    Mulayam family and Mayawati should be banned for life from contesting elections on the basis of lack of maturity and polarization of society.

    With max representation in Lok Sabha, UP could have gained many political favors but all waste.

  • Mahendra

    It hurts to see this sorry state of Indian politics after 65 years of independence from the British Raj! As the British ruled for 150 years by the dividing and conquering their foes, the present political parties are no different. What is needed is the awakning of each learned voter who can make a difference by discussing in small groups what is good for the nation rather than a perticular party, religion, cast/creed and region. These groups should spread their ideas to people at large via the electronic media (tweeter, emails,facebook) at their disposal.

    Recently, the freedom idea from an individual or group of individuals spread like a wild fire on electronic media and deposed a long time middle east dictator and sent him packing in exile.

    One should ask very simple questions…
    …how can a simple beginer in politics sometime ago be the richest chief minister today?
    …why some other political party is supporting such a currupt chief minister and helping to get reelected?
    …why people like Anna & his followers turn their blind eyes and ignore these acrocities?
    ….why media is promoting people like Anna, Baba Ramdev and other cronies and call them Gandhian when none of them are  even an iota of Gandhi?