Constitution of India has provided some rights to all its citizens called as Fundamental rights or Human rights in India. In addition, they are similar to the rights provided in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Therefore, it is obvious for every Indian citizen to know what the fundamental rights are.
Understanding fundamental rights in India
According to these fundamental rights, our constitution guarantees us civil liberties to lead our lives in peace and harmony. In individual rights every Indian citizen in entitled to receive human rights as per the liberal democracy stature like equity before law, freedom of speech as well expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom to practice religion and right to constitutional remedies for protecting their civil rights by writs. By any chance or by any means, if any Indian citizen forbids and violates these laws he is entitled to punishment as per the laws in Indian Penal Code under equivalent judiciary.
Below is the detailed list of fundamental rights in India
RIGHT TO EQUALITY
This is one of the most important fundamental rights provided to all the Indian citizens under the article 14, 15, 16, 17 and18 of the constitution guaranteeing the following
Article 14 (Equality before law): Country laws equally protect all the citizens and no one can discriminate any of the Indian citizens on their caste, creed, color, sex, gender, religion or place of birth.
Article 15 (Social Equity providing equal access to all public places): Again, there will not be any discrimination based on caste, creed color, religion etc. Every person has equal rights to access all the public places like parks, museums, temples, bathing Ghats etc.
Article 16 (Equality in Public Employment): Every citizen has equal rights to apply for all the available government jobs and there will not be any social discrimination of individual.
Article 17 (Eradication of Untouchability): Any practices of untouchability are not allowed by Indian constitution as all Indian are treated equally and any such offense are punishable under law.
RIGHT TO FREEDOM
Under the articles 19, 20, 21, and 22 Indian constitution provides Right to certain freedoms to every citizen. The six freedoms imposed in this section of fundamental rights in India are automatically suspended or restricted during state of Emergency.
Article 19: Under this article every Indian citizen in provided with some rights like freedom of speech and expression, Freedom to assemble freely and peacefully, Freedom to form associations or unions, Freedom of movement, Freedom of Residence and Freedom to practice Religion and any Profession. Although these rights are provided to all the Indian citizens State government can impose restrictions on them in the interest of morality, public order, morality Sovereignty and National integrity.
Article 20: Under this article, Indian citizens protected and safeguard their human rights with due respect to law for conviction due to any offences guaranteeing the convicted right of life and personal liberty.
Article: 21: Under this article, every individual has protection of life and personal liberty, declaring no citizen is denied of his life and liberty except by the law. However, right to live does not provide right to die and is considered criminal offense.
Article 22: Under this article, certain human rights are kept intact when any individual is arrested like to know the reason for arrest, right to defend himself with his chosen lawyer and to bring the arrested in front of magistrate within 24 house of arrest.
RIGHT AGAINST EXPLOITATION
As per articles, 23 and 24 of Indian Constitution Right against exploitation provides two main provisions: elimination of human trafficking and beggar or forced labor as well Abolition of child labors under the age of 14 in dangerous locations like factories and mines.
RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION
This right is covered under the article 25, 26, 27 and 28 of Indian constitution providing all kind of religious freedom to all the citizens to sustain eternal secularism declaring all the religions are equal before law. Every citizen has constitutional right to preach, practice and propagate religion of his or her choice.
CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS
To keep the diversity and sovereignty of India intact, the constitution has provided special human rights under article 29 and 30 to protect the interest of India having different languages, religions and cultures. Under this, right minorities are protected where in any community having their own script, language and culture has all rights to develop and conserve it. No discrimination is allowed for any individual citizen for applying any of the state or state aided education institutions.
RIGHT TO CONSTITUTIONAL REMEDIES
Under this right citizen has, right to move his motion in court of law in case if there is any denial of his fundamental human rights. Under such circumstances, court can issue various kinds of wits, which can be habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari. During state of emergency, the central government suspends this fundamental right.